بررسی نماد گاو یکتا آفریده و ماهیت سیاوش در شاهنامه و انعکاس آن در سنگ برجسته‌های تخت جمشید

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرمان

2 استادیار زبان و ادبیات فارسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرمان

چکیده

اساطیر نشان­دهنده‌ی فرهنگ و نحوه‌ی تفکر مردمان در دوران­های کهن است؛ زبانِ گویای تاریخی است از دوران‌های پیش از تاریخی؛ سخنگویِ بازمانده­های گرانبهایی است که از دل خاک‌ها بیرون کشیده می­شود، یا در دل سنگ‌ها و کوه‌ها یافت می­گردد. اساطیر نماینده‌ی تداوم زندگی فرهنگی یک ملت و به نوعی تاریخ آن است (آموزگار،1388 :1). شاعران و نویسندگان، اسطوره­ها و باورهای کهن اقوام خود را پرورانده و آثار ایشان پیوندی تنگاتنگ با اسطوره‌ها دارد. گاو یکتا آفریده در کیهان‌شناسی زرتشتی، نام نخستین گاو آفریده شده و یکی از شش آفرینش ازلی اهورامزدا در جهان مادی و پدرِ اساطیریِ همه حیوانات سودبخش است. این گاو در افسانه آفرینش کشته می‌شود و از اندام و چهره‌ی او جهان دوباره پر از جانداران می­شود. آن­گونه که سیاوش نیز شخصیت مثبتی است، روح آزاده و جوانمردی دارد و مظلوم و بی­گناه می­میرد. از خون او گیاه مقدّس خون سیاوشان می‌روید که با رویش و زایش ارتباط دارد. در پهنه‌ی گسترده‌ی ایران نقوش برجسته، سنگ ­برجسته و سنگ نگاره در کنار ادبیات برای حفظ اساطیر قدمتِ زیادی دارد. بر همین اساس در تخت­جمشید نیز از سنگ‌برجسته­های بسیاری استفاده شده ­است. نماد گاو در نقوش برجسته‌ی تخت جمشید به وفور و با معانی مختلف به کار رفته ­است. معنای نهفته در لایه­های ژرف­تر سنگ­برجسته­ها و تطبیق آن با موارد مشابه در ادبیات می­تواند تصویر درست­تری از باورهای اسطوره­ای و فرهنگی ایران زمین باشد.
اهداف پژوهش
۱- بررسی اسطوره‌ی گاو یکتا آفریده و داستان سیاوش در شاهنامه از اهداف این پژوهش است.
۲- از دیگر اهداف این پژوهش انعکاس اساطیر درنقوش برجسته‌ی تختِ­جمشید و شاهنامه‌ی فردوسی است.
سوالات پژوهش
۱- اسطوره گاو یکتا آفریده چه کارکردی در نقش سیاوش در شاهنامه‌ی فردوسی و نقوش برجسته‌ی تخت جمشید داشته است؟
۲- گاو یکتا آفریده در قالب شخصیت سیاوش چه مفاهیمی را به مخاطب القاء می­نماید؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Exploring the Symbol of Gavaevodata and the Essence of Siavash in Shāhnāmeh and its Replication on the Embossments of Persepolis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Peyman Aghabeygipoor 1
  • Dariush Kazemi 2
  • Maryam Shaygan 2
1 PhD student in Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Persian Language and Literature, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch
چکیده [English]

Myths represent the culture and way of thinking of people in ancient times; Language is a historical narrative from prehistoric times; It is the voice for precious relics that are extracted from the heart of earth or amongst rocks and mountains. Myths represent the continuity of the cultural life of a nation and characterize its history (Amoozgar, 2009: 1). Poets and writers have cultivated the myths and beliefs of their ancestors and their works are interrelated to mythologies. The symbol of Gavaevodata created in Zoroastrian cosmology is the name of the first created cow and is one of the six eternal creations of Ahura Mazda in the material world and the mythical father of all beneficial animals.
This cow is slaughtered in the myth of creation and from its body and face, the world is again filled with creatures; this is similar to the character of Siavash, a positive character with a free and gentle spirit that tragically dies oppressed and innocent. From his blood the sacred plant known as the “blood of Siavashan” grows that is associated to birth and nurture. In the vast expanse of Iran, reliefs, stone-carvings and lithographs, along with literature are ancient means to preserve mythology. Accordingly, many prominent embossed reliefs have been applied in the Persepolis; hence in this regard the symbol of the cow is abundantly used in the prominent motifs of Persepolis and is interpreted in many connotations. The hidden meanings deep in the layers of embossed patterns and its adaptation to similar cases in literature can generate a more precise representation of the mythical and cultural beliefs of Iran.
Research aims:
1- To explore the myth of the Gavaevodata and its relation to the story of Siavash in the Shāhnāmeh.
2- To compare the mythical symbols of the embossed reliefs of Persepolis and Ferdowsi's Shāhnāmeh.
Research questions:
1- What purpose did the myth of the Gavaevodata create in the role of Siavash in Ferdowsi's Shāhnāmeh and the embossed motifs of Persepolis?
2- What concepts does the Gavaevodata create in the form of Siavash's character in order to inspire the audience?

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • myth
  • Gavaevodata
  • Siavash
  • poetry
  • embossed reliefs
  • Persepolis
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