سبک و تزیین معماری بناهای دوره تیموریان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه معماری، واحد امارات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، دبی، امارات متحده عربی

2 گروه معماری، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 گروه معماری، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

معماری اسلامی ایران حاصل تداوم طبیعی معماری در دوره‌های مختلف تاریخی است.  از ­این­رو، شناخت و مطالعه تاریخ  معماری  می­تواند راهگشای ما در شناخت معماری دوره‌ی اسلامی و جنبه‌های مختلف آن باشد. اواخر قرن هشتم هجری قمری، آشفتگی­های سیاسی ایران، زمینه را برای حمله تیمور گورکانی به این کشور فراهم کرد. تیموریان، پس از تصرف ایران بیش از یک قرن، یعنی تا زمان ظهور صفویه بر این کشور حکم راندند. تیمور، پس از ویران کردن بناها و قتل­عام نمودن مردم شهرها، به ساختن بناهای باشکوه رغبت نشان داد. جانشینان او نیز این روش را پی­گرفتند. بر اثر این کارها، هنرهای گوناگون، به­ویژه هنر معماری رونق یافت. این پژوهش با روش تاریخی­_توصیفی و مطالعه‌ی کتابخانه­ای انجام شده­ است. یافته­های پژوهش نیز نشان می­دهد که در دوره‌ی تیموریان، بناهای باشکوهی به­ ویژه در خراسان کنونی ساخته شد که از شاهکارهای معماری ایران به شمار می‌روند. اگرچه، روش  معماری در دوره تیموریان ریشه در معماری دوره­های پیشین چون آل مظفر دارد، اما در این دوره، معماری از نظر عظمت و غنای تزئینات به شکوفایی کم­سابقه­ای دست یافت که آن را می­توان در بناهایی چون مدرسه‌ی غیاثیه خرگرد، مدرسه دودر، مسجد گوهرشاد و بی بی خانوم مشاهده کرد.
هدف‌های پژوهش:

بررسی سبکِ هنر معماری و رونق آن در دوره تیموریان.
بررسی عناصر تزیینی ایرانی و نشان دادن غنای آن در هنر معماری دوره‌ی تیموریان.

سوالات پژوهش:
1. مشخصه‌ی اصلی معماری عهد تیموری که آثار این دوره را از سایر بناها متمایز می‌سازد، چیست؟
2 . سبک و ویژگی معماری تیموری در چه بناهایی قابل مشاهده است؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Style and Architectural Decorations of Timurid Structures

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Rasouli 1
  • iraj etesam 2
  • Mehrdad Matin 3
1 Department of Architecture, UAE Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
2 Department of Architecture,Science and Reasearch Branch, Islamic Azad University,Tehran,Iran
3 Department of Architecture, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University,Tehran,Iran
چکیده [English]

The Islamic architecture of Iran is the result of a natural continuity of architecture in diverse historical epochs. Therefore, perceiving and studying the history of architecture can aid understanding the architecture of the Islamic period and its various aspects. In the late eighth century AH, the political turmoil in Iran paved the way for Timur Gurkhani to invade the country. The Timurids ruled Iran for more than a century, until the rise of the Safavids. Timur, after destroying the building and massacring the people of the cities, showed interest in building magnificent structures. His successors followed suit. As a result of these works, various arts flourished, especially the art of architecture. His successors followed the same suit. As a result of these works, various arts flourished, particularly the art of architecture. This research is accomplished via a historical-descriptive method followed by library study. The research findings also show that during the Timurid period, magnificent buildings were built mainly in present-day Khorasan, which are among the architectural masterpieces of Iran. Although the method of architecture in the Timurid period is influenced by the architecture of earlier periods such as the Al-Muzaffar era, however, the architecture of the Timurids, in terms of grandeur and richness, has achieved an unprecedented flourishing visible in various structures such as the Ghiasieh School of Khordgerd, Dodar School, Goharshad Mosque and Bibi Khanoom.
Research objectives:
1. To study the style of architectural art and its prosperity in the Timurid period.
2. To scrutinize Iranian decorative elements and its richness in the architectural art of the Timurid period.
Research questions:
1. What is the main feature of Timurid architecture that distinguishes the works of this period from other buildings?
2. In what structures can the style and features of Timurid architecture be perceived?

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Architecture
  • style and decoration
  • Khorasan
  • Timurids
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