تأثیر خدمات فرهنگی-مذهبی زرتشتیان بر گسترش تحولات تمدن ایرانی-اسلامی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه تاریخ و تمدن ملل اسلامی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

2 استادیار تاریخ تمدن اسلامی، گروه تاریخ و تمدن ملل اسلامی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار. عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، واحد مشهد ، مشهد ، ایران

4 گروه تاریخ و تمدن ملل اسلامی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

هیچ تمدنی در خلأ به وجود نیامده و نمی‌آید. هر تمدنی میراث‌دار گذشته خود است و در نسبتی معنادار با آن قرار دارد. در حقیقت آنچه از گذشته بر جای می‌ماند، نقش تعیین‌کننده‌ای در شکل‌گیری آینده بازی می‌کند. عصر طلایی تمدن اسلامی را نیز باید با توجه به این اصل و در زمینه‌ی فرهنگی و تمدنی پیش از خود به فهم درآورد. تمدن طلایی اسلام که در عصر خلافت عباسی به وجود آمد، به طور مشخص در ارتباط با تمدن‌های مجاور خود بود. در این میان، تمدن‌ ایرانیِ عصر ساسانی نقش بسزایی در شکل‌گیری تمدن اسلامی دارد. اشرافیت زرتشتی در تاریخ تمدن ایران، همواره به عنوان نخبگان فرهنگی پرچمداران علم و دانش بوده‌اند. در عصرِ ساسانی ما شاهد این هستیم که توان این نیروی نخبگانی، به بالاترین حد خود می‌رسد. با توجه به حوادث جهانی چون بسته ‌شدن مدارس علمی در امپراطوری روم شرقی، جهان ایرانی در عصر ساسانی به رهبری نخبگان زرتشتی، بیش از پیش کانون مباحث علمی جهان متمدن می‌گردد. در این پژوهش کوشیده‌ایم تا با روشی کتابخانه‌ای نشان دهیم زرتشتیان چگونه پس از اسلام توانستند به عنوان یک نیروی فرهنگی زنده بمانند و با انتقالِ سنتِ دانش در عصر ساسانی، به جهان اسلام منشأ خدمات بسیاری شوند. نتایج پژوهش نشان‌دهنده‌‌ی آن است که انحلال نظام ساسانی، دستاوردهای فرهنگی زرتشتیان را از دایره‌ی بسته‌ی موبدان بیرون آورد و دستاوردهای علمی گذشته را پایه‌ی تحولات جدید ساخت. در این میان دو حوزه‌ی دانش بیش از هر حوزه‌ی دیگری توانستند از میراث زرتشتی بهره‌گیری کنند: نخست دانشِ پزشکی که با سنت غنی جندی‌شاپور در پیوند است و دیگری فلسفه و حکمت که نمونه‌ی بارز انتقال آن در آثار سهروردی قابل مشاهده است.
اهداف پژوهش:

بررسی حوزه‌‌های دانش در ایران زرتشتی پیش از اسلام.
بررسی خدمات فرهنگی اندیشه‌ی زرتشتی در ایران دوره‌ی اسلامی.

سؤالات پژوهش:

چه حوزه‌های دانشی از ایران پیش از اسلام به ایران پس از اسلام انتقال پیدا کردند؟
تأثیرات فرهنگی حوزه‌ی زرتشتی در دوره اسلامی به چه صورت بوده است؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Zoroastrian Cultural-Religious Services on the Development of Iranian-Islamic Civilization

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elahe Ziaei 1
  • Shahrbanoo Delbari 2
  • Ardashir Asadbeigi 3
  • Seyyed Hossein Raees al-Sadat 4
1 PhD Student, Department of History and Civilization of Islamic Nations, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of History and Civilization of Islamic Nations, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty Member, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran
4 Department of History and Civilization of Islamic Nations, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

No civilization is created in a void. Every civilization has its own heritage and has a substantial relationship with it. In essence, what is left from a past plays a decisive role in shaping the future. The golden age of Islamic civilization must also be understood in terms of this principle and in the field of its prior culture and civilization. The golden civilization of Islam, which emerged during the Abbasid caliphate, was clearly associated with its neighboring societies. Meanwhile, the Iranian civilization of the Sassanid era plays a central role in the formation of Islamic civilization. Zoroastrian aristocracy has always been the cultural elite of the flag bearers of science and knowledge in the history of Iranian civilization. In the Sassanid era, the power of this elite force reaches its peak.
Due to global events such as the closure of scientific schools in the Eastern Roman Empire, the Iranian world in the Sassanid era led by Zoroastrian elites increasingly became the center of scientific discussions of the civilized world. In this study, via a library research, it is sought to express how Zoroastrians were able to survive after Islam, as a cultural force, and become a source of many services to the Islamic world by transferring the tradition of knowledge in the Sassanid era. The results of the research show that the dissolution of the Sassanid system took the cultural achievements of the Zoroastrians out of the hands of the priests and hence the scientific achievements of the past became a basis for new developments. In the meantime, more than any other field of knowledge, they were able to benefit from Zoroastrian heritage: firstly, in the field of medical knowledge, which is linked to the rich tradition of Jundishapur, and secondly philosophy and wisdom, a clear example of which can be seen in Sohrevardi’s works.
Research objectives:
1. A study of the fields of knowledge in pre-Islamic Zoroastrian Iran.
2. A study of the cultural services of Zoroastrian thought in Iran in the Islamic period.
Research questions:
1. What fields of knowledge were transferred from pre-Islamic Iran to post-Islamic Iran?
2. What are the cultural influences of the Zoroastrian principals in the Islamic period?

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cultural Services
  • Religious Services
  • Scientific Tradition
  • Zoroastrians
  • Iranian-Islamic Civilization
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