ساختار فرهنگی، هنری و اقتصادی خانقاه‌ها در فرآیند رشد مریدان صوفیه ایلخانان ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تاریخ -ایران اسلامی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 دکترای تخصصی، دانشیار دانشگاه شهید چمران، اهواز، ایران،

3 دکترای تخصصی، دانشیار گروه تاریخ دانشگاه پیام نور

4 دکتری تخصصی، دانشیار گروه تاریخ دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

خانقاه به عنوان مرکز عرفان و تصوف ایرانی و اسلامی و بنایی مقدس، با کارکردهای گوناگون اجتماعی، فرهنگی، هنری، اقتصادی و سیاسی، به نوعی بازنمایی فرهنگ و تمدن ایرانی است. عصر ایلخانی به عنوان دوره‌ی گسترش تصوف و خانقاه‌سازی شناخته می‌شود. در این برهه خانقاه‌ها، مأمنی اجتماعی و فرهنگی و مکانی مقدس قلمداد می‌شدند که جای مدارس را گرفته و علاوه بر زهد و عبادت، برنامه‌های دیگری در آنها انجام می‌شد. در این مقاله تلاش شده است که از  میان عوامل متعدد تأثیرگذار در پیدایش و رشد تصوف و خانقاه‌ها در دوره ایلخانان به مهم‌ترین آنها اشاره شود. در واقع پژوهش مذکور، تأثیر عوامل کلیدی در فرآیند گسترش صوفیان در دوره‌ی ایلخانان را بررسی می‌کند. از آنجا که نمی‌توان از نقش تصوف در دوره‌ی ایلخانان بر بناهای خانقاه‌های این دوره صرف نظر نمود؛ مطالعه‌ی معماری خانقاه‌ها، به منظور بررسی عوامل گسترش تصوف ایلخانی قابل توجه است، چرا که با مطالعه عوامل فرهنگی و هنری بناهای خانقاه‌ها می‌توان با ساختار آن در این برهه آشنا شد. روش پژوهش مقاله حاضر توصیفی‌ـ‌تحلیلی و روش گردآوری اطلاعات به شیوه‌ی مطالعه‌ی منابع کتابخانه‌ای است و برای بررسی نقش بناهای خانقاهی در گسترش تصوف در دوره‌ی ایلخانان، به مطالعه عوامل فرهنگی و هنری بناهای خانقاه‌ها پرداخته شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد معماری خانقاه‌ها و ساختار هنری آنها، ارتباط تنگاتنگی با اندیشه‌های عرفانی و صوفیانه داشته است و بررسی ساختار هنری و عناصر نمادین خانقاه نمایان‌گرِ ارتباط مستقیم آن با گسترش عرفان و تصوف در دوره ایلخانان است. در هنر معماری اسلامی، بسیاری از نمادپردازی‌ها منشاء عرفان و تصوف بوده است. رخداد‌های فرهنگی و هنری خانقاه‌ها در رشد مریدان صوفیه در دوره ایلخانان مؤثر بوده و رواج تصوف در این دوره، پیوندی میان عرفان و تصوف و هنر دوره‌ی ایلخانی ایجاد کرد.
اهداف پژوهش:

بررسی تأثیر مهم‌ترین عوامل در پیدایش و رشد تصوف و خانقاه‌ها در دوره ایلخانان.
مطالعه معماری خانقاه‌ها و بررسی تأثیر آن در گسترش تصوف ایلخانی.

سؤالات پژوهش:

معماری خانقاه‌ها و ساختار هنری آنها چه ارتباطی با اندیشه‌های عرفانی و صوفیانه داشته است؟
بناهای خانقاهی چه تأثیری در گسترش تصوف در دوره‌ی ایلخانان گذاشته است؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Cultural, Artistic and Economic Structure of Monasteries in the Developing Procedure of the Sufi Followers of the Ilkhanid Era

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Naderi Ramezan Abad 1
  • Ali Bahranipour 2
  • Hooshang Khosro Beygi 3
  • Bahador Ghayem 4
1 PhD Student in History - Islamic Iran, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
2 PhD, Associate Professor, Department of History, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran,
3 Associate Professor, Department of History, Payame Noor University
4 Associate Professor, Department of History, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
چکیده [English]

Monasteries or “Khaneghah”, as the center of Iranian- Islamic mysticism and Sufism and a sacred building, with various social, cultural, artistic, economic and political functions, is a representation of Iranian culture and civilization. The Ilkhanid era is known as the period of the expansion of Sufism and the construction of monasteries. At this time, monasteries were considered a social, cultural, and sacred sanctuary that replaced schools, and in addition to asceticism and worship; other activities took place. In this article, it is attempted to study the various influential factors in the emergence and growth of Sufism and monasteries during the Ilkhanid period. Indeed, the study examines the impact of key factors in the process of expansion and growth of Sufis in the Ilkhanid period. Since the role of Sufism and its influence on the buildings of the monasteries of this period cannot be ignored; the study of the architecture of the monasteries is significant in order to study the factors that led to the spread of Sufism during this stage in history. The research method of this article is descriptive-analytical and the method of collecting information is accomplished by studying library resources and also by observing and analyzing the role of monastic buildings in the spread of Sufism in the Ilkhanid period; furthermore, the cultural and artistic factors of monastic buildings have been studied. The results show that the architecture of monasteries and their artistic structure are closely related to mystical and Sufi ideas and the study of the artistic structure and symbolic elements of the monastery shows its direct relationship with the spread of mysticism and Sufism in the Ilkhanid period. In the art of Islamic architecture, many symbolisms have been the source of mysticism and Sufism. The cultural and artistic events of the monasteries were influential in the growth of Sufi followers during the Ilkhanid period, and the spread of Sufism in this period established a link between mysticism and Sufism and the art of the Ilkhanid period.
Research objectives:
1. To investigate of the influence of the most important factors in the emergence and growth of Sufism and monasteries in the Ilkhanid period.
2. To analyze the architecture of monasteries and examining its impact on the spread of Sufism during the Ilkhanid period.
Research questions:
1. How is the architecture of the monasteries and their artistic structure related to mystical and Sufi ideas?
2. What effect did monastic buildings have on the spread of Sufism during the Ilkhanid period?

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • monastery
  • Sufism
  • Ilkhanid period
  • Architecture of Mmonasteries
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