عنوان مقاله [English]
Romantic themes and the description of the beloved have been one of the constant pillars of the structure and content of the sonnet as a form of poetry since its foundation. However, the historical course of the sonnet indicates that there have been conceptual alterations in a number of periods. Undoubtedly, a set of changes in the cultural and social atmosphere of a society can play a role in creating changes in the styles of poetry and lyrical themes; as they are a passage for expressing feelings and spiritual belongings. In classical lyric poetry, the beloved beholds a general and stable appearance, moreover, before the constitution, according to the descriptions of the lyricists, no change is visible in this appearance. Nonetheless, by studying the poetry of contemporary lyricists, a variation is seen in romantic themes, mainly in introducing the image of the beloved with a more artistic description. The question that arises here is that which components in the sonnets of contemporary Iranian poets have initiated the emergence of the artistic appearance of the beloved? The research findings show that the dramatic change in the artistic description of the beloved in the contemporary period is due to the type of lover-poet attitude towards the beloved. Components such as the desertion of repetitive descriptions and stereotypes of the beloved image in the sonnet, the use of novel and new similarities and resemblances in describing the beloved image and the invention of new attributes and combinations have led to changes in structure, form and format; furthermore, the lover has lost its generality and has moved towards individuality. Likewise, the owner-slave relationship between the lover and the beloved, which was the result of classical lyric poetry, gave way to a two-way relationship with mutual understanding. These changes are due to the revolution in the poet's lyrical mentality towards man and society. It demonstrations that the lover and the beloved have become closer to each other - and many of the desires of the lover, which were unreachable are now achievable. This approach of contemporary lyricists has led to the artistic depiction of the beloved in the lyric.
1. Explaining the alteration in the image of the beloved in contemporary Iranian lyrical poetry
2. Presenting the effective components in creating an artistic description of the beloved in contemporary lyric poems of Iran
1. What factors played a role in creating a change in contemporary sonnets and descriptions of the beloved?
2. Which components in the lyric poems of contemporary poets have led to the artistic depiction of the beloved?