عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Nastaliq script has gradually fluctuated from the beginning until the middle of Qajar era. Simultaneously with the prevalence of lithographic printing in cities of Iran, some changes were made in shape of letters thanks to limitations of this emerging industry for writing Persian texts. While majority of calligraphers persisted to use their traditional writing style, a few number of artists such as Kalhor, however, developed a new method which resulted in creation of a special style appeared in the third period of Qajar era. The present study, analyzing library sources and also applying field research techniques, has endeavored to compare the shape and structure of letters and words of Nastaliq script in lithographic print of SafarName –ye- Khorasan (book of voyage to Khorasan) and manuscript of SafarName –ye- Qom (book of voyage to Qom) in comparative-descriptive method. The findings show that Kalhor's transcription of SafarName –ye- Khorasan, which has been written with the pen angle of 64°, includes more lines per page and the beginnings of lines and also proper names have been indicated in it by some marks. The readability of the script has been considered in the process of writing the mentioned work and the features of writing style in third period of Qajar are obviously manifested in it. Moreover, the shrinking form of letters and words, which has been of Kalhor's innovations reflecting the impacts of new method of lithography, is also found in the manuscript of SafarName –ye- Qom. These and other similar reforms attributed to Kalhor or created by the effects of lithographic printing, are found in other contemporary calligraphers' works as well and have been a prelude to dominating writing style of the third period of Qajar era.