نقش مساجد و مدارس مذهبی در بنیادگرایی مردم پاکستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری علوم سیاسی و عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکز

2 دکتری علوم سیاسی و عضو هیئت علمی

3 دانشجوی دکتری علوم سیاسی- گرایش مسائل ایران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد زاهدان.

چکیده

چکیده
ابوالاعلی مودودی (1903-1979م) از متفکران و اندیشمندان برجستۀ شبه قاره هند است که افکار او تأثیر بلافصلی بر بنیادگرایی اسلامی در پاکستان داشته است. مودودی به تحقق آرمانی‌ـ‌اسلامی باور داشته است و در اندیشۀ او مفاهیمی مانند «حاکمیت خداوند»، «نظام سیاسی اسلامی»، «مقابله با غرب»، «لزوم تحقق جامعۀ اصیل اسلامی»، «آموزش اسلامی»، «جهاد» و مفاهیم دیگری که رنگ‌و‌بوی اسلامی دارند، از جایگاه خاصی برخوردارند. با تشکیل کشور پاکستان در سال 1947 میلادی و بازخورد اندیشه‌های مودودی، این کشور تا به امروز مهدی برای بنیادگرایی اسلامی شناخته شده است. بنیادگرایی اسلامی به‌عنوان یک ایدئولو‍ژی دارای مؤلفه‌ها، گزاره‌ها و بنیان‌های فکری‌ـ‌سیاسی خاصی است که آن را از سایر ایدئولوژی‌های قرن بیستم؛ همچون لیبرالیسم، سوسیالیسم، ناسیونالیسم و مانند آن جدا می‌کند. بنیادگرایی اسلامی به‌رغم تعدد و تنوعش در عرصۀ نظریه و عمل در دنیای اسلام بنیان‌های فکری و سیاسی مشترکی دارد که عبارت‌اند از: جامعیت و شمولیت دین اسلام، پیوند میان دیانت و سیاست، لزوم بازگشت به اصول و مبنای دین اسلام، برقراری حکومت اسلامی و عمل‌گرایی و داشتن برنامه و راهبرد عملی برای گذار از وضع نامطلوب غیراسلامی به وضع مطلوب اسلامی است. این مقاله با روش تحلیلی‌ـ‌توصیفی که منابع آن براساس روش کتابخانه‌ایی جمع‌آوری شده است. نتایج به دست آمده از این پژوهش حاکی این مطلب است که اندیشه‌های مودودی باعث رشد بنیادگرایی اسلامی و بر گروه‌های مختلف بنیادگرای اسلامی در پاکستان تأثیرگذار بوده است. چنین تأثیرگذاری را می‌توان در روند هویت‌یابی اسلامی نظام سیاسی پاکستان، رشد و گسترش احزاب اسلامی، مدارس مذهبی و سازمان‌ها و گروه‌های بنیادگرا در این کشور جست‌و‌جو کرد.
اهداف پژوهش:

شناسایی جهت فکری ایدئولوژی بنیادگرایی اسلامی در نظام سیاسی پاکستان.
تبیین نقش مستمرر مساجد و مدارس مذهبی در شکل‌گیری بنیادگرایی مردم پاکستان.

سوالات پژوهش:

اندیشه‌های مودودی چه تأثیری بر بنیادگرایی اسلامی در پاکستان داشته است؟
چگونه می‌توان نقش مساجد و مدارس مذهبی را در بنیادگرایی مردم پاکستان تبیین کرد؟

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Mosques and Religious Schools in Pakistan's Fundamentalism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aliakbar Amini 1
  • Seyed Asadolah Athari 2
  • Alireza Noura 3
1 PhD in Political Sciences, and Academic Member of Tehran Markaz branch, Azad University
2 PhD holder in Political Sciences and Academic Member
3 PhD student of Political Sciences,=Iranian Studies, Zahedan Islamic Azad University
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Abul A’la Maududi (1903-1979) is one of the leading thinkers and philosophers of the Indian subcontinent whose ideas have had an immediate impact on Islamic fundamentalism in Pakistan. Maududi believed in the Ideological-Islamic realization, and in his thoughts concepts such as "God's sovereignty", "Islamic political system", "Confrontation with the West", "Necessity of the realization of the original Islamic society", "Islamic education", "Jihad" and other concepts with a distinctive Islamic essence were of importance. With the formation of Pakistan in 1947 and the feedback of Maududi s philosophies, this country has until today been renowned as a cradle for Islamic fundamentalism. Islamic fundamentalism considered as an ideology has certain philosophical-political components, propositions, and foundations that distinguish it from other ideologies of the 20th century such as liberalism, socialism and nationalism among others. Islamic fundamentalism, despite its diversity in opinion and practice in the Islamic world, has common intellectual and political foundations, including: the comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the Islamic religion, the link between religion and politics, the necessity to return to the principles and foundations of Islam, the establishment of Islamic rule, pragmatism, and devising a practical plan and strategy for the transition from the non-Islamic conditions to the ideal Islamic situation. This article is a descriptive-analytic research study in which resources are gathered based on a library method. The results of this study indicate that Maududi’s notions have led to the growth of Islamic fundamentalism and have influenced various Islamic fundamentalist groups in Pakistan. Such influence can be traced to the process of Islamic identification of Pakistan's political system, the growth and expansion of Islamic parties, religious schools, and fundamentalist organizations and groups in the country.
Research aims:
1. Identifying the ideological orientation of Islamic fundamentalist ideology in the Pakistani political system.
2. Explain the continuing role of mosques and religious schools in shaping Pakistan's fundamentalism.
Research questions:
1. What effect did Maududi’s ideas have on the Islamic fundamentalism in Pakistan?
2. How can the role of mosques and religious schools be explained in the fundamentalism of the Pakistani people?

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Pakistan
  • Abul A’la Maududi
  • Islamic fundamentalism
  • mosques
  • religious schools
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